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The indenting forces in macro-hardness tests are in the range of 50N to N. Micro-hardness test micro-Vickers , Knoop is applicable when hardness of coatings, surface hardness, or hardness of different phases in the multi-phase material is measured.

Ceramic Hardness | Dynamic Ceramic

Small diamond pyramid is used as indenter loaded with a small force of 10 to gf. Nano-hardness test uses minor loads of about 1 nano-Newton followed by precise measuring depth of indentation.


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Hardness of ceramic materials is usually tested by Vickers or Knoop Methods, using diamond indenters. In this test a hardened steel or tungsten carbide for extremely hard materials ball of 2. The loading force is in the range of N to N higher loading forces from the range are used for harder materials. In order to eliminate an influence of the specimen supporting base, the specimen should be seven times as minimum thicker than indentation depth for hard alloys and fifteen times thicker than indentation depth for soft alloys.

In the Rockwell test the depth of the indenter penetration into the specimen surface is measured.

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Loading procedure starts from applying a minor load of 10 kgf 3kgf in Rockwell Superficial Test and then the indicator, measuring the penetration depth, is set to zero. After that the major load 60, or kgf is applied.

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The penetration depth is measured after removal of the major load. Harder alloys and hard cast iron are tested with the diamond cone at kgf Rockwell hardness scale C. An example of Rockwell test result: 53 HRC.


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  7. Rockwell Superficial Test is applied for thin strips, coatings, carburized surfaces. Reduced loads 15 kgf, 30 kgf, and 30 kgf as a major load and deduced preload 3kgf are used in the superficial test. Pencil hardness measurements have been used by the coatings industry for many years to determine the hardness of clear and pigmented organic coating films.

    Coatings on Substrate

    This test method has also been used to determine the cure of these coatings, especially when forced dried using heat. This test method is especially useful in developmental work and in production control testing in a single laboratory. It should be recognized that the results obtained may vary between different laboratories when different pencils as well as panels are used.

    Every effort should be made to standardize the hardness of the lead used and the technique followed. There is more than the hardness of any coating to be considered, so do not judge a finish entirely on the basis of its hardness. Grading pencils come in an assortment of both hard and soft, and can be found in most art or office supply stores, ranging in hardness from 10H to 9B. The most commonly used writing pencil is the 2 HB grade , which is fairly soft, contains more graphite, and leaves a dark mark.

    Usually the coating thickness being tested is Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article.

    Insight into the Hardness of Silicon Nitride

    Abstract It is empirically known that an armor ceramic should be as hard or harder than the projectile it intends to defeat. Citing Literature.

    Volume 1 , Issue 3 July Pages Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure.

    Recommendations for Determining the Hardness of Armor Ceramics

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