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By Geert Booij

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The Conceptualization of Natural Gender in English

In English, only one suffixed form exists — mommy — and it is used by children. See Handke However, the difference is not always as extensive. I have already established the overall emotional connotations and pragmatic functions of diminutives and augmentatives in 2.

Slang suffixes may do the same for youth and in-group affiliation, but I do not discuss them here. Those with marked names, such as Jan, Jerzy and Zofia, are more likely to be referred to by a first-degree diminutive form, e. Janek, Jurek and Zosia in normal adult-adult interactions. Clipping typically forms Polish slang, e. Fellerer Slovak has verbal diminutives that also follow a linear structure, e. Lockyer , Volek , Bratus , and it has been found that diminutive suffixes can be added to several primary emotive interjection bases with processes including reduplication to greatly raise levels of emotion.

Likewise, Polish speakers are also different as to which interjections become diminutive forms, along with their meanings and functions, as briefly addressed in the pilot studies discussed in section 2. To answer this question, I completed several pilot studies , , in anticipation of the larger study that follows.

My study briefly examines the existence and core meanings of DIs in English from an analysis of Twitter posts, while my and studies turn to Polish o jejku! They convey emotions across the spectrum from positive to negative. My studies have found that diminutives, as markers of affection and other aspects of emotivity, are particularly compatible with interjections to form synthetic diminutive interjections.

Lockyer a: The rest of this dissertation takes the results found in my small-scale pilot studies and applies them to larger corpora and other forms of written communication. It uses a different theoretical framework — Appraisal theory Martin and White — to fill in the gap left by the pilot studies 60 and previous research on diminutives and interjections. Namely, the dissertation shows which interjections may receive suffixes and how frequently in Chapter 4, and qualitatively analyzes positive, playful and negative y-affixed diminutive interjections across written corpora in Chapters 5 through 7.

For the English language, I presented the extremely productive -y diminutive suffix and the various other suffixes that often overlap with slang, including -o, -er s , and -s. For Polish, I gave a background of the diminutive suffixation, most notably through the -k- diminutive affix that produces endearing and positive words which help build positive relationships among individuals in both written and oral communication. At the word-formation level, phonological rules and available suffixes largely determine which base words can be suffixed, and with which suffixes.

Polish is easy to describe in this regard because the language contains a vast array of affixes that can be added onto each other to create first-, second-, or third-degree diminutives. While there are lexicalized diminutives, and some words do not accommodate certain suffixes, these issues are typically minimal. Polish speakers have many opportunities to choose a certain diminutive suffix to convey emotive colouring, especially in the formation of diminutives from personal names.

In some communication, the use of a diminutive is a conventionalized cultural norm. This freedom in diminutive formation is shared among Czech, Slovak, and Russian speakers as well. The chapter showed that there is disagreement about the inventory of diminutive suffixes in English. Schneider ; others have a restricted set of criteria and allow for very few diminutive suffixes in English.

The -y suffix, despite being extremely productive in forming new words used to children, by children, and among adults, has received the most criticism as a potential diminutive suffix because of its frequent use to and by children. The other suffixes that have been suggested to function as diminutives, namely -o, -er s and -s do not appear particularly affectionate or endearing; rather, they often merely add splashes of colour to an utterance.

The following chapter presents the methods used for the study and its theoretical background. The datasets that were mined for y-affixed diminutive interjections are also introduced. It first identifies all the affixed interjections in use in reference corpora, then turns to focus specifically on diminutive interjections in Twitter, blogs, fanfiction, and fiction digitized in Google Books.

The major goal of the study is to show how, when, and why diminutive interjections are used in fiction and in written online communication. The purpose of the present case study is to add to the findings in Lockyer , a, and These pilot studies began to combine research on diminutives and interjections to suggest meanings and emotional connotations for diminutive interjections.

Using Twitter and reference corpora, the pilot studies investigated the English diminutive interjections wowee! The first part of the present study Chapter 4 combines qualitative and quantitative analysis for all affixed interjections in English and Polish; that is, those interjections with diminutive, augmentative, and slang affixes. Qualitatively, it sets out to investigate which interjections receive affixes, how they are defined by users in online dictionaries, and which semantic, pragmatic and registerial features can be extrapolated from user definitions.

Quantitatively, the chapter presents raw and normalized frequencies of affixed and unaffixed forms from several reference corpora.

Expressing Opinions in French and Australian English Discourse

These results form the basis of the three chapters that follow. The second part of the present study applies the semantic system of Appraisal to only the y-diminutive interjections in English and -k- affixed diminutive interjections in Polish. It will attempt to extend the semantic and pragmatic analysis beyond the few emotional meanings identified in the small-scale pilot studies. Those emotions that are humorous e.

These chapters will focus on situational and contextual factors to review the lexical Appraisal resources used with diminutive interjections. In this study, the linguistic features are affixed interjections, which refers to those interjections that have any expressive affix, e.

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In other words, the term includes all interjections with endings. The term diminutive interjection, then, refers to interjections with diminutive affixes. This is the focus of Chapters 5 to 7.

Language: Crash Course Psychology #16

Written language differs from spoken language in various ways, and digital communication tends to fall in-between the two see Biber , Crystal The findings of the present study are limited to written language, notably internet language and adult fiction. Online spoken interactions through, e. Skype and YouTube are excluded.


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Thus, I do not claim that the results from this study apply to spoken language, though to a certain extent they may inform which affixed interjections may be used, and some of their corresponding functions. With which affixes are affixed interjections typically formed? The first part of this study relates to the variety of expressive affixes available in English and Polish that are added to interjections.

Before we proceed to the analysis of diminutive interjections, we must consider the broad palette of all potential affixed interjections. To answer this question, prior research of English and Polish diminutive, augmentative and slang affixes informed potential affixed interjections, and the search function in online slang dictionaries, reference corpora, and the micro-blogging site Twitter show the variety of affixed interjections.


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  • Why are these affixes used, and how can online slang dictionaries inform these choices? Since affixed interjections rarely appear in standard dictionaries, user definitions in online slang dictionaries tentatively answer the research question by decomposing affixed interjections into semantic and pragmatic features see 3. Which fundamental semantic, pragmatic and registerial features underlie the formation of affixed interjections?

    Interjections and diminutives convey semantic and pragmatic features and emotional attitudes. They are also often linked to register, particularly slang-affixed interjections.